Overall At-Risk Score: 49
Lamiaceae (Mint family)
White sage’s white and purple flowers bloom in early summer and produce many small seed capsules that dry out and drop their tiny, 1 mm small seeds up to 3 meters away. From there the seeds are picked up and moved further away by harvester ants and small rodents.
White sage is only found in southern portions of California and northwestern Mexico.
White sage prefers full sun and well-drained soil and needs to have a summer drought to survive. It lives primarily on dry slopes at elevations of 300-1500 meters (980 to 4,900 feet).
Ability to Withstand Disturbance and Overharvest:
Since every above-ground part of white sage is used for medicinal purposes, it is very easy to be overharvested to the point of death. It is better to take a few stalks from each plant than to remove an entire white sage plant.
Status of Endangered/Threatened (by state):
Salvia apiana does not have any federal or state protections in the U.S.
Salvia apiana has not yet been evaluated by the IUCN Red List.
Part of Plant Used/Active Medicinal Compounds:
White sage was used historically as a cleaning agent on both the body and around the house. As a medicine, it was used to treat several minor health issues, such as coughs and colds, as well as being used as an eye cleanser. Modern spiritual practitioners harvest and dry white sage for smudging, and herbalists prepare the leaves as a tea that is said to help treat upset stomachs, sore throats, and as a treatment for heavy menstruation.
Wild Harvesting Impact On Other Species and Lookalikes:
White sage is an important food source for many animals, particularly elk, mountain sheep, pronghorns, and deer. The seeds are also eaten by local rodent and small bird and mammal populations.
Recommendations For Industrial and Home Use:
If possible, look for cultivated sources of white sage over wild-harvested ones, and please talk to your doctor before using white sage or any other medicinal supplements to ensure safe use, particularly if you take any preexisting medications which may have adverse effects when used in conjunction with herbal supplements.
- Bean, Lowell John and Katherine Siva Saubel, (1972), Temalpakh (From the Earth); Cahuilla Indian Knowledge and Usage of Plants, Banning, CA. Malki Museum Press, page 136.
Hedges, Ken, (1986), Santa Ysabel Ethnobotany, San Diego Museum of Man Ethnic Technology Notes, No. 20, page 39.
- Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, (2019, March 6), Plant Database: Salvia apiana. Retrieved September 14, 2019, from https://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=SAAP2.
Montalvo, A. M. and J. L. Beyers, (2010), Plant Profile for Salvia apiana. Native Plant Recommendations for Southern California Ecoregions, Riverside-Corona Resource Conservation District.
- U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA. http://www.rcrcd.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=88&Itemid=190
USDA, (n.d.), Plants Profile for Salvia apiana (white sage), Retrieved September 14, 2019, from https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=saap2