Species At-Risk List

UpS Species-At-Risk List July 2022 For the benefit of the plant communities, wild animals, harvesters, farmers, consumers, manufacturers, retailers and practitioners, we offer this list of wild medicinal plants which we feel are currently most sensitive to the impact of human activities.

Our intent is to assure the increasing abundance of the medicinal plants which are currently in decline due to expanding popularity and shrinking habitat and range. UpS is not asking for a moratorium on the use of these herbs. Rather, we are initiating programs designed to preserve these important wild medicinal plants.


American Ginseng – Panax quinquefolius

ArnicaArnica spp.

Black CohoshActaea racemosa

BloodrootSanguinaria canadensis

Blue CohoshCaulophyllum thalictroides

Butterfly WeedAsclepias tuberosa

Cascara SagradaFrangula purshiana

ChaparroCastela emoryi

Echinacea – Echinacea spp.

Elephant TreeBursera microphylla

Eyebright Euphrasia spp.

GentianGentiana spp.

GoldensealHydrastis canadensis

GoldthreadCoptis spp.

False UnicornChamaelirium luteum

KavaPiper methysticum (Hawaii only)

Lady’s Slipper OrchidCypripedium spp.

Lobelia – Lobelia inflata

LomatiumLomatium dissectum

Maidenhair FernAdiantum pedatum

Mayapple Podophyllum peltatum

OshaLigusticum porteri

PeyoteLophophora williamsii

Pink RootSpigelia marilandica

PipsissewaChimaphila umbellata

Ramps - Allium tricoccum

SandalwoodSantalum spp. (Hawaii only)

Slippery ElmUlmus rubra

Squirrel CornDicentra canadensis

StonerootCollinsonia canadensis

Stream OrchidEpipactis gigantea

SundewDrosera spp.

Trillium, Beth Root - Trillium spp.

True UnicornAletris farinosa

Venus Fly TrapDionaea muscipula

Virginia SnakerootAristolochia serpentaria

White SageSalvia apiana

Wild Indigo Baptisia tinctoria

Wild Yam – Dioscorea villosa

Yerba MansaAnemopsis californica

Analog List for At-Risk and To-Watch Herbs

Compiled by Jane Bothwell, March 2000, revised 2006

After introduction to the United Plant Savers list of “At-Risk” plants, students always ask, “Well, what can we use in its place?”  Often times the choice is simple: choose a cultivated species rather than one harvested from the wild.  When cultivated species are not available, then it is best to find a plant analog.  An analog is something having an analogy or similarity to something else.  For our purposes, this indicates parallels in function or end results between two or more medicinal herbs.

Following is an alphabetical list of most of the United Plant Savers “At-Risk” and “To-Watch” lists, accompanied by suggested analogs.  This list is compiled by the author and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of UpS.

United Plant Savers Species At-Risk Assessment Tool